Dearman Zero Emission Transport Refrigeration Unit
How society delivers clean and sustainable cold is a major issue, given the global challenges of food scarcity, changing demographics and growing energy demand. The Dearman Transport Refrigeration Unit (TRU) enables fleet managers to prepare for the toughest emissions regulations while also maintaining efficiency and profitability.
Engineered Without Compromise
Engineered Without Compromise
The Dearman Transport Refrigeration Unit is the first to meet all environmental challenges – and set new industry performance standards – all without having to compromise on cost. Powered by the revolutionary Dearman engine, and fuelled by liquid nitrogen (LiN), the system is low carbon, zero-emission, quiet, efficient and cost-effective. What’s more, it outperforms conventional diesel units in cooling power, speed and accuracy. Where other TRU technologies pose tough choices between competing priorities, the Dearman TRU enables companies to enhance their sustainability by addressing these challenges to improve operational flexibility and in some cases to save money.
The Dearman TRU displaces diesel with liquid nitrogen. This means it reduces lifecycle CO2 emissions typically by 30% – 85%, and potentially by 96% (depending on carbon intensity of electricity used for LiN production: 30% to 85% for average country grid electricity; 96% is for renewable electricity).
The Dearman TRU eliminates Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM), the emissions of which from a diesel TRU are many times higher than those of a Euro VI truck propulsion engine. As a result, replacing a diesel TRU with a Dearman system could reduce the truck’s total engine emissions by more than 70% for NOx and more than 90% for PM. Since the Dearman TRU is zero-emission, it would qualify to operate in cities planning to regulate the use of diesel.
Dearman analysts estimate that if the 1 million – strong EU TRU fleet were replaced with zero-emission alternatives, it would equate to taking 50 million Euro VI diesel cars off the road.
Because the Dearman TRU is powered by expansion rather than internal combustion, it is markedly quieter than a diesel unit. It will meet the 60 decibel (dB(A)) limit under the PIEK standard (the PIEK-standard has been adopted in several countries including: Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands & UK), which many local authorities adopt to regulate night-time deliveries. This means it can be used out-of-hours without disturbing neighbours or breaking any local regulations. Studies have suggested that delivering at night, when there is less congestion, can reduce fleet CO2 emissions by up to 30%.
The Dearman transport refrigeration system combines cryogenic refrigeration with a Dearman engine and a downsized vapour compression refrigeration cycle, giving it several decisive advantages. First, it is 50% more efficient in delivering cooling than cryogenic systems using evaporation only, meaning it uses far less nitrogen to produce the same amount of cooling. Second, the system generates its own power to run ancillary systems, making it truly independent of the truck’s propulsion engine – there is never any need for idling while stationary. And third, it is extremely powerful, and can cool a vehicle from +15ºC to -21ºC in less than 30 minutes – much faster than a typical diesel-powered system. The Dearman TRU gives fleet operators maximum flexibility and can be configured to support the most demanding duty cycles.
The Dearman TRU is powered by a piston engine, and so benefits from decades of R&D in the motor industry. The Dearman engine looks a lot like a diesel, yet operates at ambient temperatures and lower pressure, which further improves its durability and reliability. Dearman works continuously with refrigeration experts Hubbard/Zanotti and cryogenic specialists Air Products to make its TRU systems yet more efficient and reliable.
Liquid nitrogen and the necessary storage tanks can easily be sourced and maintained through Air Products, and refuelling takes just a few minutes. The system is operated through a digital controller with in-cab controls, and offers 4G enabled remote monitoring, data logging and operation.
The Dearman engine is a piston engine that requires no expensive or scarce materials – unlike battery technologies – and can be produced by established automotive suppliers. As a result, the lifecycle or leasing costs of a Dearman TRU should be comparable to those of a diesel unit, and the Dearman TRU also provides additional environmental and performance advantages. The Dearman TRU fits a standard Hubbard/Zanotti undermount TRU skid, and a front (nose) mount is being developed.
Liquid Nitrogen as a fuel
While the Dearman engine is a step-change innovation, there is nothing new about liquid nitrogen as a working fluid for transport refrigeration. Nitrogen systems are already offered by global companies such as Air Liquide and Linde, but these systems cool by evaporation only, and do not exploit the energy available from the nitrogen’s expansion. They are quiet and zero-emission but inefficient in the use of nitrogen as they rely on the primary diesel engine for power.
With a Dearman LiN engine, there are several advantages compared with a conventional auxiliary diesel unit and an evaporation LiN system:
- Zero tailpipe emissions
- Independent of primary engine
- Good functionality/speed of pull down
- Cost-competitive. The system exploits both evaporation and expansion, producing cold and power from a single tank of cryogen
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